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This review summarizes the biological role of GM-CSF in RA and the preclinical and clinical data on mavrilimumab and other monoclonal antibodies targeted on this pathway as an alternative therapeutic option in RA patients who are unresponsive to conventional biological drugs.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, GM-CSF, mavrilimumab, monoclonal antibody, biologic drugs This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited.

Despite the wide spectrum of available biological treatments, ~30% of RA patients are still unresponsive, resulting in high disability and increased morbidity and mortality.

Approximately 1.5 million Americans are living with RA.

Join together and find help in your battle by learning about your treatment options or attending a support group.

In particular, 158-week results of phase II trials did not show long-term lung toxicity, addressing the major concern about this target of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis development.

However, further clinical studies conducted in larger RA populations are needed to confirm these promising results.

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